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A US Government Accountability Office study determined that "most breaches have not resulted in detected incidents of identity theft".
This has pushed up the prices of houses and priced out an entire generation.
This question was addressed in a research study by John M. Black, MD, “Compulsive shopping: When spending begins to consume the consumer”: The compulsive buyer may feel happy (or powerful) while shopping, but these transitory emotions are usually followed by letdown or guilt.
The compulsive shopper is distressed by his or her activity and will often hide the evidence.
Identity fraud is often but not necessarily the consequence of identity theft.
Someone can steal or misappropriate personal information without then committing identity theft using the information about every person, such as when a major data breach occurs.