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Here, we test the assumption that chickens were not introduced to New Zealand during prehistory through ancient DNA and radiocarbon analyses of chicken bones from sites of Māori middens containing prehistoric material.
The chickens belong to the widespread mitochondrial control region haplogroup E.
Joshua Bush has been writing from Charlottesville, Va., since 2006, specializing in science and culture.
He has authored several articles in peer-reviewed science journals in the field of tissue engineering.
Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.) to most East Polynesian archipelagos between AD 10; however, it has long been assumed that New Zealand was an exception.
Despite the fact that chicken bones have been recovered from localities of early archaeological middens in New Zealand, their age and genetic relationships have never been critically assessed.
The acid component of vinegar reacts with calcium compounds in bones, making the calcium soluble so that the water component of vinegar can then dissolve the calcium from the bones, leaving the bone less rigid and able to bend.
The acetic acid in vinegar and calcium carbonate in chicken bones react together to produce calcium acetate -- a calcium salt that is soluble in water -- and carbonic acid.
Scientists’ understanding of dinosaurs has been revolutionized in the last 25 years by the discovery of fossilized soft tissues.
Eggshell can be dated – some had very reasonable dates, others not.
The key factor is that the carbon present in the shell truly represented the time of life/death of the individual [or research subject] and is not of secondary origin.
During this dispersal, voyagers transported a variety of cultigens and commensal species throughout the East Polynesian archipelagos, including taro () [3–7].
Previous studies have demonstrated how the analysis of the distribution, morphology, genetics and age of these translocated species can provide important insights into the timing and origins of prehistoric movements of people throughout the Pacific (e.g. Prehistoric bones indicate that some commensal species, such as the Pacific rat, were nearly ubiquitous throughout East Polynesia [8,9].